Primary vaginal cancers are very rare and represent only 1-3% of gynaecological cancers. Secondary vaginal cancer resulting from extension (mainly from cervix cancer) is more common. It is associated with the HPV virus, treatment with immunosuppressants, local radiation, and chronic irritation. The most common symptoms are vaginal bleeding and vaginal discharge. Signs are exophytic or ulcerated masses in the vaginal mucosa. The most common location is in the upper third and back of the vagina. Vaginal cancer is diagnosed by biopsy. These treatments can be extremely mutilating and thus vaginal cancer treatment requires individualisation. Exocavitary and endocavitary radiotherapies are also used.
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